“Machine Learning for the distributed and dynamic management of a fleet of autonomous taxis and shuttles”

Thesis defence of Tatiana BABICHEVA

« Machine Learning for the distributed and dynamic management of a fleet of autonomous taxis and shuttles »

10 mars 2021 – 9h30

Online : Zoom

 

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Jury :

  • Mme Leïla KLOUL, MCF (HDR), Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, FRANCE – Directeur de these
  • M. Dominique BARTH, Professeur, Université de Versailles SainDt-Quentin-en-Yvelines, FRANCE – Co-encadrant de these
  • M. Alain QUILLIOT, Professeur des Universités, Université Clemont-Ferrand II, FRANCE – Rapporteur
  • M. Akka ZEMMARI, Maître de conférences (HDR), Université de Bordeaux, FRANCE – Rapporteur
  • M. Wilco BURGHOUT, Directeur de recherche, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SUÈDE – Co-encadrant de these
  • M. Jakob PUCHINGER , Professor, CentraleSupélec, FRANCE – Examinateur
  • M. René MANDIAU, Professeur des universités, Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France , FRANCE – Examinateur
  • M. S. M. Hassan Mahdavi, PhD, Vedecom, Mobilab – Invité

Résume

In this thesis are investigated methods to manage shared electric autonomous taxi urban systems under an online context in which customer demands occur over time, and where vehicles are available for ride-sharing and require electric recharging management.

We propose heuristics based on problem decomposition which include road network repartition and highlighting of subproblems such as charging management, empty vehicle redistribution and dynamic ride-sharing.

The set of new methods for empty vehicle redistribution is proposed, such as proactive, meaning to take into account both current demand and anticipated future demand, in contrast to reactive methods, which act based on current demand only.

We provide reinforcement learning in different levels depending on granularity of the system.

We propose station-based RL model for small networks and zone-based RL model, where the agents are zones of the city obtained by partitioning, for huge ones. The complete information optimisation is provided in order to analyse the system performance a-posteriori in offline context.

The evaluation of the performance of proposed methods is provided in a set of road networks of different nature and size.

The proposed method provides promising results outperforming the other tested methods and the real data on the taxi system performance in terms of number of satisfied passengers under fixed fleet size.

VEDECOM & MACIF barometer : 1st edition Are the French people ready to accept the autonomous vehicle in their daily life?

Comment les Français envisagent-ils le véhicule autonome dans leur quotidien à l’avenir ?

Pour quels usages ?  

Quel degré de confiance lui accordent-ils ?

Pour répondre à ces questions, la MACIF a souhaité réaliser le premier baromètre d’acceptation du véhicule autonome avec VEDECOM auprès d’un panel représentatif de la population française constitué de 4 014 personnes. Les questions posées permettaient de récolter des données sur :

  • la perception spontanée du VA
  • le rapport au VA après une définition générale
  • le type de VA préféré à choisir parmi 4
  • l’évaluation de l’acceptabilité des 4 véhicules incluant notamment la perception du VA en termes de sécurité, confiance, protection des données personnelles et attitudes
  • des thèmes en lien avec les enjeux actuels
  • les caractéristiques socio-démographiques des répondants et leur degré de technophilie

 

« VEDECOM se félicite d’avoir été choisi par la MACIF pour construire ce premier baromètre français du véhicule autonome.
Il permet de prendre conscience d’une nouvelle réalité dans le paysage des mobilités »,

Philippe Watteau, Directeur Général de l’Institut VEDECOM

 

Les résultats de la 1ère édition présentés ce matin au salon AUTONOMY DIGITAL 2020, révèlent que 70% des Français expriment une attitude positive vis-à-vis de ce mode de déplacement – 1 Français sur 2 estime que le véhicule autonome est fiable – alors qu’ils sont 88% à n’en avoir jamais vu.

COVID-19
Le véhicule autonome jugé légitime pour le transport des marchandises et des malades
En moyenne 6 Français sur 10 jugent de manière positive l’utilisation du véhicule autonome pour les livraisons de marchandises (63 %) ou le transport de personnes malades (58 %) pendant la crise sanitaire.

 

Par ailleurs, l’étude montre que le véhicule autonome doit rimer avec accessibilité et écologie puisque 70 % des répondants à l’étude pensent que le véhicule autonome sera déployé seulement s’il respecte les normes écologiques.

 

En conclusion, plus les français connaissent le véhicule autonome, plus ils envisagent de l’utiliser régulièrement comme mode de déplacement.

 

Le baromètre souligne la nécessité de renforcer l’image de sécurité des véhicules autonomes par la formation et l’expérimentation, en particulier auprès des jeunes et des étudiants.

Convaincue que le véhicule autonome « partagé » pourrait être une solution pour favoriser une mobilité inclusive, notamment dans les territoires ruraux et périurbains, la MACIF a créé une communauté d’intérêt dédiée au véhicule autonome au sein du Movin’On Lab.

Aujourd’hui composée de 11 entreprises, l’objectif de ce laboratoire d’innovation ouverte est de déployer des solutions de véhicule autonome qui favorisent l’émergence d’une mobilité inclusive et durable.

 

« Si demain, le véhicule autonome permet de redonner de la mobilité à ceux qui en sont privés, de partager un bien, de moins peser sur l’environnement et de remettre de la vie et de l’activité dans les centres villes,
alors ce sera une réelle avancée positive pour la société. »

Yann ARNAUD, Directeur Réponses Besoins Sociétaires et Innovation du Groupe MACIF

 

Plus d’informations : 

Lire le communiqué de presse

Back to school… time to learn: VEDECOM launches MobTips, the first digital mapping of new mobility in France

With the arrival of new services and uses of electric, hybrid, autonomous and shared mobility, the transport and automotive ecosystem is undergoing unprecedented changes, both social, economic and technological. A “Mobility” sector is emerging, more complex and multifaceted. There is a growing need to share and understand a common language between all mobility actors, from designer to user. To clarify the issues related to new mobility, VEDECOM, a French Institute for Energy Transition (ITE), is launching Mobtips, the first reference system dedicated to “the words of mobility”. Mobtips’s mission is to share a French common vocabulary and make the changes and new mobility concepts understandable to a large audience in a fun way.To visit VEDECOM’s Mobtips site: https://mobtips.fr This initiative received financial support from the SGPI (French State investments for future programs) and the Automotive Industry Platform (PFA).

Read the press release

From pedestrian to autonomous vehicle… A public survey is on line!

L’évolution du véhicule autonome passera nécessairement par la communication, l’échange d’informations et l’amélioration de ses capacités de perception à l’environnement. Il parait ainsi essentiel que les véhicules autonomes et les piétons cohabitent et interagissent entre eux en toute sécurité.

Cependant, aujourd’hui de nombreuses questions subsistent notamment une : quel sera le comportement d’un piéton face au véhicule autonome ?

C’est dans ce cadre que les chercheurs de l’institut VEDECOM lancent un questionnaire en ligne portant sur le véhicule autonome et la communication avec les autres usagers de la route.

Ce questionnaire dure une trentaine de minutes environ, nous comptons sur vous !

Toutes vos réponses sont essentielles pour poursuivre notre travail de recherche.


Pour répondre à notre questionnaire :

Participer à l’enquête

Merci à tous pour votre participation et la diffusion de cette enquête autour de vous !

The best delivery robots selected by VEDECOM’S new Mobility Camp site!

In these times of lockdown, VEDECOM’s launch of its new Mobility Camp site is well timed, as it offers information about the best teaching resources for new mobility methods. The goal: to imagine a post-coronavirus world which places a strong emphasis on innovative, sustainable mobility methods. And the icing on the cake: if you’re a player in this field, you can contribute your own content to it!

This week, we focus on Europe’s Top 5 delivery robots. TwinswHeel, Starship, Kar Go, AMR and Eliport: in the current health crisis, these delivery solutions could provide a solution to the difficult balancing act of maintaining economic activity while also protecting delivery company employees. These are technologies which, in more “normal” times, will also help to address issues such as pollution reduction, shared use of space and efficiency gains.

You can find our selection of delivery robots at https://mobilitycamp.fr/experimentations/

To contribute, click the Contribute button on the left side of the page.

Final conference for the European CoExist project held in video conference format

The final conference for the European CoExist project was held on 25 and 26 March 2020. Originally intended to take place in Milton Keynes, one of the project’s partner towns, the Covid-19 crisis ultimately forced it to be conducted in video conference form instead. The purpose of the CoExist project, launched in 2017 with a budget of 3.5 million euros, is to prepare for the transition phase during which roads will be shared by self-driving and conventional vehicles. The goal: to assist road authorities and local governments to plan for a road network incorporating various levels of automation, traditional vehicles, and other road users. By simulating the incorporation of self-driving vehicles into traffic flows in 4 European towns and cities, the project analysed the consequences of the presence of these new vehicles on urban road infrastructure. We take a close look at a project in which Vedecom’s expertise with self-driving vehicles proved enormously beneficial.

Building a bridge between self-driving vehicles and infrastructure planning

If the introduction of self-driving vehicles is to live up to its promises in terms of reducing road space and improving traffic efficiency and safety, vehicle design and urban infrastructure planning are key issues to be considered. This is the challenge addressed by the European CoExist project, bringing together 17 partners from 7 European countries (Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Netherlands, the UK and Sweden), representing industry, academic institutions and local government. Their task was to study the feasibility and consequences of introducing automated smart vehicles in terms of impacts on traffic flow, the environment (greenhouse gases and CO2) and noise pollution in an urban environment, in a few highly specific use cases.

Three key stages in modelling traffic for 4 European cities

The project followed three key stages in the development of transport and infrastructure. The first step was to validate extensions of existing transport models at micro and macro level, including different types of self-driving vehicles with varying levels of automation. The second step was to develop an assessment tool that would simulate the impacts of these autonomous vehicles on safety, traffic flow and infrastructure changes – using a variety of different ramp-up scenarios for self-driving vehicles in such environments. Lastly, these tools were applied to eight use cases in four European towns and cities: Gothenburg (SWE), Stuttgart (DE), Helmond (NL) and Milton Keynes (GB). The end goal was to produce directives for designing hybrid infrastructure that is equally capable of supporting conventional and automated vehicles, thus providing the smoothest possible transition phase.

 

VEDECOM : the CoExist project’s self-driving vehicle expert

VEDECOM’s partnership and expertise was invaluable in implementing the project. The Institute agreed to the use of control models for autonomous vehicles that were exactly the same as for VEDECOM’s self-driving vehicle prototypes, and their software adaptations. These were incorporated into the VISSIM application produced by PTV Group, which was then able to simulate fleets of self-driving vehicles and shuttles on the roads of partner towns, which were themselves modelled using the solution.

VEDECOM was also involved in research into the interpretation and analysis of data regarding the economic and environmental impacts of the gradual introduction of such autonomous vehicles into urban areas. Lastly, it provided analysis into the system’s feasibility and the infrastructure modifications required.

Find out more at: https://www.h2020-coexist.eu/what-is-coexist/