ASSESSING THE SOCIETAL IMPACTS AND ACCEPTABILITY OF DELEGATED DRIVING
SUB-PROJECT THE PSYCHOLOGY BEHIND DELEGATED DRIVING
Understanding how the driver interacts with a self-driving car in order to improve performance and safety when handing over control and boosting acceptability among the public.
• Changes in the cognitive process when driving is delegated (awareness of the situation, attention and mental load, etc.)
• Monitoring the driver’s condition
• Impact of on-board tasks when taking back control in cases of varied usage.
• Acceptability and confidence in the self-driving vehicle
• Technical and technological progress make it possible to delegate driving to a computer in certain conditions. This new way of driving, or of being driven, creates new forms of human-machine interaction on the road in a dynamic and uncertain environment.
• There is the specific question of how the transition phases are handled (when handing over or taking back control), depending on the level of vehicle automation (SAE 3 & 4).
• Drivers’ attitudes and behaviour with regard to this new generation of vehicles need to be taken into account to ensure road safety at all times—on the motorway and in semi-urban or urban areas.
• In-depth work on cooperation between the driver and the vehicle
• Experiments in a “Wizard of Oz” type car controlled by an expert with unaccustomed drivers on the track then on the road.
• Analyses of the interactions between the self-driving car and other road users (pedestrians, riders on two wheels, conventional vehicles, etc.)
• Code of ethics covering the decision-making process of the self-driving vehicle during interactions with other users when faced with moral dilemmas.
• Learning and training in delegated driving
SUB-PROJECT TESTING AND APPROVAL
Scenarios, test tracks and resources for the development and approval of self-driving vehicles.
- “Upstream” test tracks and resources at Satory, and “downstream” at Linas
- Pre-regulations and initial shuttle tests
- Innovative test materials: “Wizard of Oz” vehicle for delegated driving, connectivity tests, cyber-security tests, etc.
- Monitoring work on benchmarking/regulations/normalisation/Euro NCAP for ADAS and self-driving vehicle tests
- Coordinating the testing/approval working group for the NFI (Nouvelle France Industrielle) autonomous vehicle plan
- Participation in the automated public transport working group
- Production of the road map for the resources, test equipment and projects
- “Upstream” test tracks and resources at Satory, and “downstream” at Linas-Monthlhéry (2016 and 2018)
- Wizard of Oz car delivered in June 2016, test campaign in Q4 2016
- Pre-regulation study and first shuttle tests in Q4 2016.
- Projects and studies launched in January 2017 with the VEDECOM new three-year plan
SUB-PROJECT LEGAL ASPECTS OF DELEGATED DRIVING
Determining the legal framework for the introduction of self-driving vehicles.
- Law on civil liability
- Insurance law
- Law on criminal liability
- Personal data protection
From the legal viewpoint, the civil and criminal liability in the event of a road accident need to be determined. In France, this is not an issue because the ‘Badinter law’ compensates victims on the basis of a notion of involvement (even a stationary vehicle can be deemed as causing damage and that vehicle’s insurer will cover any compensation payments) and not by proving liability. However, once victims have been compensated, the insurer has to prove a vehicle failure in order to obtain reimbursement of the sums paid out to the victim from the party responsible (driver, software designer, etc.), so this raises the question of evidence of a vehicle failure or otherwise (problem of collecting data). In criminal law, however, at the current time it is the driver who is held liable, even with the latest amendment to the Vienna convention. This situation is less than satisfactory when the offence is committed when driving has been delegated, which is why we need to reflect upon the identification of the criminally liable party in such an event.
- Identifying a system of liability so that victims can be compensated
- Identifying the liable party in the event of an offence when driving is delegated
- Providing a framework for the collection, compilation and storage of personal data